Gold Price Forecast for 2023 and Next 5 Years: Predictions for 2024-2025, 2030


Gold price forecast is an analysis of the factors that affect the supply and demand of the precious metal, as well as the identification of patterns, fractals, and trends emerging in the market.

Will gold rise in price? What will be the price of the precious metal in the near future? In this article, we’ll look into historical data, see what experts have to say, and make a gold price forecast 2023, 2024, and a long-term one until the end of 2030.

The article covers the following subjects:

Major takeaways

  • The gold price will be stably growing in the long term. The historical high was set at $2,073 in May 2023.
  • Most expert analysts predict that the XAUUSD rate will rise. The precious metal is expected to update its historical peak: the rate may exceed $2,300 in early 2024.
  • The price will continue to rise in 2025 – 2030. In optimistic scenarios, the rate will go above $3,000. Still, deep corrections to $1,928 are also possible.
  • The gold price rises during market instability and amid high demand for precious metals. The XAUUSD is considered an excellent long-term investment asset.

How to make a gold price forecast?

There are three key approaches to make a reliable gold rate prediction:

  1. Fundamental analysis allows you to track changes in monetary policy and other factors affecting the price of precious metals. First of all, these are changes in the global financial system and the actions of the US central bank. Therefore, it is extremely important to take into account various macroeconomic indicators:
    • federal funds rate changes;

    • inflationary expectations;

    • currencies’ movements and the money supply size;

    • balance of imports and exports.

    It is also important to take into account the state of the main gold-importing countries since more than half of the world’s demand for XAUUSD comes from India and China. It is well known that the global economy is closely related to geopolitics. This is another risk factor affecting the precious metals markets, including gold. For example, the aggravation of China-US relations can lead to sharp jumps in the gold price. Possible changes in the sanctions policy against Russia or China, trade wars, and political instability can greatly affect the XAU rate as well. Also, don’t forget about the main producing countries, as China, Australia, Russia, and Canada account for a third of the total $US/OZ supply.

    Remember that fundamental analysis is commonly used in predicting global trends.

  2.  Technical analysis. This approach includes studying the history of XAUUSD quotes on charts using indicators and other tools for analyzing price movements. Technical analysis can help determine support and resistance levels, trend lines, possible price breakouts and reversals both in the long term, and in intraday trading.

    Gold has a directional movement in the long term. Therefore, for technical analysis, trend indicators such as Moving AveragesRSIMACD, and Bollinger Bands are primarily used.

  3. Market sentiment analysis. This approach consists in assessing the mood of buyers and sellers, namely, who has a dominant position in the market at the moment. Market sentiment analysis instruments include surveys, content monitoring in social networks, and specialized online platforms, such as

It is important to remember that market sentiment can change very quickly. It is influenced by future gold price forecasts from professional analysts or, for example, by what information Fed Chairman Jerome Powell will provide.

A Recent History of Gold and Gold Price Today

Western investors’ interest in gold led to an increase in its rate from a minimum of $1,160 in the summer of 2018 to a record high of almost $2,073 in May 2023. During this time, the precious metal has become one of the most attractive financial assets on the planet.

Several factors contributed to this strong growth:

Geopolitical instability

The imposed sanctions and freezing of Russia’s gold and foreign exchange reserves on accounts in European and US banks have become a dangerous precedent. Physical gold in bars remains the only guarantor of economic and political independence. This is confirmed by statistics from countries that have recently been increasing their gold deposits. The top ten gold consumption countries are Turkey, China, Singapore, Uzbekistan, India, Iraq, Russia.


For about 80 years, the US dollar has been the main currency in international trade and the main unit for measuring the value of goods and services globally. However, after the 2007-2008 financial crisis, it became clear that the economies of many countries were highly dependent on the state of affairs in the US. Russia was the first to announce the transition to settlements in local currency with China and Latin America. Later, this initiative was supported by all BRICS countries. Currently, 85 countries support de-dollarization. At the same time, gold and foreign exchange reserves held in US dollars decreased from 73% (2001) to 58% (2023). The central banks of most countries seek to diversify their gold and foreign exchange reserves and consider XAU as a viable alternative to the USD.

US economic problems and potential recession

Unlike central banks, which pay little attention to gold price fluctuations, hedge funds, and major institutional players closely monitor changes in US macroeconomic indicators. Gold has traditionally been considered a safe-haven asset, which is why it is in high demand during periods of economic turmoil, as well as during recessions. 

For objectivity, it is worth noting that the peak of inflation in the US economy occurred in July 2022, when it reached 9.1%. By the summer of 2023, consumer inflation has dropped to 3%. After such news, gold demand fell, as did its price. At the same time, the federal funds rate in the US has reached its highest over the past 20 years, reaching 5.5%. At the moment, experts do not expect that it will decrease in the near future. On the one hand, this is good news for the gold market. With higher interest rates, investors’ appetite for risk decreases, and the XAUUSD demand as a defensive asset grows. However, on the other hand, the yield of treasury bonds is also increasing, which attracts some investors.

The current gold price forecast for today 16.10.2023 is $1 917.18.

Gold Price Forecast 2023 and 2024: What Do Experts Predict?

Despite the stock market’s growth since the beginning of 2023 by 20%, the gold price forecast has risen. This is due to the fact that many regulators have revised their policy towards gold and foreign exchange reserves and begun to increase XAU reserves. At the same time, inflation remains a key factor for the formation of the XAUUSD rate in the near future. In the US, this figure has been reduced from a 40-year high to 3%. However, experts are not sure that the situation will stabilize. The main risk factors are China-US trade wars and anti-Russian sanctions. All this can lead to a break in supply chains and an increase in the cost of a number of goods, including essential products. Prospects for rising prices for gas and oil can only aggravate the situation and accelerate the rapid growth of the gold price. Therefore, there is a high probability that gold’s status as the top hedging instrument against inflation is likely to push the prices further, reaching more than $2,000 per ounce.

The following factors will continue to influence the gold price prediction in 2023-2024:

  1. The increase in inflationary expectations and the weakening of the US currency will result from generous fiscal and monetary stimulus.

  2. A gradual recovery in consumer demand in China and India and new investments in these countries’ economies support the precious metal rate at a high level.

  3. Tense geopolitical situations will lead to gold becoming a hedging instrument on a larger scale.

At the same time, the opportunity cost of owning gold decreases. This definitely supports the popularity of the precious metal among investors in 2023 and will contribute to the XAUUSD growth in 2024.


International analytical agencies provide a positive gold price forecast 2023 and for the next 2024.


According to gold rate prediction 2023 XAUUSD will rise to $2,100 by the end of the year. By March 2024, its price could reach $2,200. UBS analysts point out three reasons to invest in gold right now:

  1. steady demand from central banks;

  2. US dollar’s fundamental weakness;

  3. growing recession risks in the US.

Bank of America

According to Bank of America gold rate prediction, expect a decrease in the target average annual gold price to $1,923 in 2023. This decision was influenced by the Fed’s rate hike, the slowdown in Chinese economy recovery and the global downturn in manufacturing. It should be noted that the decrease in the gold price forecast rate from BoA experts affected all precious metals.

Wallet Investor

According to Wallet Investor, the gold price forecast this year will be $1,958.51. The precious metal’s price will remain at current levels without sharp changes. Moderate growth is expected throughout 2024, with XAUUSD trading above $2,000.

Long Forecast

Economy Forecast Agency experts’ gold price prediction 2023 are optimistic. They predict XAUUSD at above $2,000 as early as August 2023. The precious metal will hit a high of around $2,500 in April 2024. Then a smooth correction is possible with the price being around $2,000 until the end of next year.

Month Open Low-High Close
Aug 2051 2000-2210 2105
Sep 2105 1946-2150 2048
Oct 2048 1928-2130 2029
Nov 2029 1940-2144 2042
Dec 2042 2042-2277 2169
Jan 2169 1960-2169 2063
Feb 2063 2063-2283 2174
Mar 2174 2120-2344 2232
Apr 2232 2232-2489 2370
May 2370 2209-2441 2325
Jun 2325 2139-2365 2252
Jul 2252 2067-2285 2176
Aug 2176 2039-2253 2146
Sep 2146 1985-2193 2089
Oct 2089 1943-2147 2045
Nov 2045 1897-2097 1997
Dec 1997 1929-2132 2030

Coin Price Forecast

Coin Price Forecast experts’ gold rate prediction 2023 is around $2,030. The upward trend will continue in 2024. Analysts expect gold to rise to $2,032 in the first half of the year. By the end of 2024, the XAUUSD price will be around $2,100 per troy ounce.

Gold weekly price forecast as of 16.10.2023

As a result of the armed conflict between Israel and Palestine, gold prices have strengthened sharply over the past week. As a result, the price reached the key resistance of the medium-term downtrend 1939 – 1927. One could consider entering new sell trades in the key resistance zone in order to cover the gap that was formed at the opening of the trading session last week. The downside target will be to break through the low of October. 

The RSI (30) indicator is in the overbought zone, which also suggests a sell signal. 

If the price consolidates above level 1939, the medium-term trend will turn up, and it will be relevant to buy on the corrections.

XAUUSD trading ideas for the week:

Sell according to the pattern at resistance (B) 1939 – 1927. TakeProfit: 1832, 1811. StopLoss: according to the pattern rules.

Technical analysis based on margin zones methodology was provided by an independent analyst, Alex Rodionov.

Gold Technical Analysis

To do a high-quality technical analysis, we’ll analyze the monthly gold price prediction chart.

As shown in the gold price chart above, the XAUUSD has been in a global bullish trend since 2001. Laying the Fibonacci grid over the gold price pattern, we’ll see some development stages of the gold trend’s lifespan. I’ve marked four of them in the chart above:

  • 1 — Area of peak values: the red zone going from 2.618 to 4.236 as per Fibonacci ratios. The price hasn’t remained in that area for long as the market is overbought.

  • 2 — Area of price consolidation: the blue zone going from 1.618 to 2.618. There are strong support/resistance levels on the borders of this zone.

  • 3 – a former consolidation area that is now a fast-moving area. Here, the price has increased volatility. If it enters this area, quotes can move quickly.

  • 4 — Area of the buyers’ last hope. If the price is here, a bullish trend is likely to end soon. However, the limits of that area can provide support to the buyers and result in pullbacks.

Now the price is consolidating at the upper border of area 2. There are numerous attempts to consolidate in area 1, which indicates the potential for a bullish movement. The price staying above $2,080 (a historic high) for several months will serve as a strong signal for buyers. In case of another unsuccessful attempt from bulls to go ahead, expect a correction in $1,890. In case of a negative scenario, the price may fall to the zone of $1,720 – $1,820. The probability of the price entering area 3 is low. Don’t expect yellow metal below $1,600 in the next few years.

Gold Price Forecast For Next Three Months

I’ve done a similar technical analysis of gold quotes using Fibo channels on the weekly chart to make a gold price future prediction for the next three months.

I’ve marked five areas on the XAUUSD’s weekly price chart for a local bullish trend that has been developing since the beginning of 2016. The price is in the consolidation area, which coincides at the upper border with the consolidation area of the global trend. Such imposition of different level boundaries enhances the significance of the levels for market participants, which makes the consolidation above $2,080 even more difficult.

Another interesting point is the division of area 3 of dynamic development into two parts near the lower border of the global trend consolidation. This division creates microzones 3a and 3b. The border between these zones is a serious obstacle for sellers. Therefore, 3a is a big support zone.

As the chart above suggests, the previous two unsuccessful attempts by buyers to consolidate the price in zone 1 caused a correction within zone 2. There is reason to believe that the XAUUSD price will follow the same scenario again. This is indicated by several signals:

  1. The November 2022 micro trend line has been broken out. There was a similar pattern in 2020 when the price dropped from $2,074 to $1,677.

  2. The MACD indicator shows a classic bearish divergence.

Thus, a moderate correction to the support level of at least $1800 is most likely before the end of the year.

Long-Term Gold Analysis for 2023/2024

To estimate gold’s potential in the coming years, you need to understand the possibility of XAU/USD consolidation in zone 1 and updating all-time highs.

The chart above shows that the precious metal is actively sold when the price goes over $2,000. It is unlikely that the situation will change the next time buyers try to update the highs. The MACD indicator on the monthly timeframe looks weak and does not promise rapid growth in 2024. Therefore, do not expect any surprises from gold. Most likely, the sideways trend will continue in the upward channel, similar to the 2021 scenario, but at higher levels. There is a high probability that in 2024 there will be at least one attempt to update the historical maximum, and, most likely, it will be unsuccessful. However, for traders, this is rather good news since the easier it is to predict the market’s future, the safer it is to trade, and the higher the potential profit.

The chart above shows the range of XAUUSD price fluctuations for each month based on the realistic gold price forecast I’ve made. I’ve calculated the expected trading range using Bollinger bands. The table below presents the same values in a text format.

Month XAUUSD price
Minimum Maximum
August 2023 1911 2000
September 2023 1865 1965
October 2023 1816 1930
November 2023 1780 1912
December 2023 1788 1905
January 2024 1826 1950
February 2024 1860 2030
March 2024 1906 2063
April 2024 1968 2116
May 2024 1960 2112
June 2024 1958 2104
July 2024 1930 2076

Long-term trading plan for GOLD

To finalize our XAUUSD technical analysis, I suggest making a trading plan for exploiting projected movement in the range of area 2.

The future of gold remains rather uncertain as so many factors affect the XAU rate in different ways. The most likely scenario for the coming months is high volatility in the sideways channel. This is how I suggest to earn in 2023 and 2024.

The blue lines on the chart above indicate four XAUUSD sell trades at $1,980, $2,015, $2,045, $2,074. The position averaging zone is wide due to the increased volatility caused by the unpredictable news background. Therefore, I propose dividing the position into four equal parts and adding up to short trades up to $2,090. Set stop loss beyond $2,100.

Sticking to the most realistic scenario, take profits in equal parts at three levels. The nearest correction target is at $1,900, and the next ones are at $1,860 and $1,830.

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XAUUSD technical analysis is presented by Mikhail Hypov.

Check short-term gold price forecast and trading signals based on technical analysis in our blog!

Gold Price Forecast 2025-2030

Though it is hard to make gold price predictions for the next 5 years. Although it is a long period, experts from different resources concur that gold will continue rising. However, they have opposite opinions about the speed of this growth.

Wallet Investor

The opening price in 2025 will be $2,005. The closing price in June 2025 will be $2,032, and it will continue going up — at the end of December, the closing price will be $2,044. According to gold price prediction 2026, the precious metal will continue to rise slightly in the first quarter of the year. The beginning of January will bring $2,045. The end of June will meet us with $2,073. The following periods will also demonstrate the uptrend, and the second half of the year will close with $2,084. Moderate growth will continue in January 2027. The annual high is expected to be around $2,153. The final period of the gold price forecast is July 2028; the price will increase up to $2,167.

Long Forecast

Month Open Low-High Close
Jan 2,030 2,030-2,264 2,156
Feb 2,156 2,012-2,224 2,118
Mar 2,118 2,077-2,295 2,186
Apr 2,186 2,063-2,281 2,172
May 2,172 2,096-2,316 2,206
Jun 2,206 2,027-2,241 2,134
Jul 2,134 2,032-2,246 2,139
Aug 2,139 2,081-2,300 2,190
Sep 2,190 1,951-2,190 2,054
Oct 2,054 2,054-2,290 2,181
Nov 2,181 2,145-2,371 2,258
Dec 2,258 2,115-2,337 2,226
Jan 2,226 1,984-2,226 2,088
Feb 2,088 1,929-2,133 2,031
Mar 2,031 2,031-2,265 2,157
Apr 2,157 1,941-2,157 2,043
May 2,043 1,917-2,119 2,018
Jun 2,018 1,845-2,039 1,942
Jul 1,942 1,832-2,024 1,928
Aug 1,928 1,928-2,150 2,048
Sep 2,048 2,007-2,219 2,113
Oct 2,113 2,066-2,284 2,175
Nov 2,175 2,175-2,426 2,310
Dec 2,310 2,200-2,432 2,316
Jan 2,316 2,192-2,422 2,307
Feb 2,307 2,297-2,539 2,418
Mar 2,418 2,383-2,633 2,508
Apr 2,508 2,305-2,547 2,426
May 2,426 2,361-2,609 2,485
Jun 2,485 2,284-2,524 2,404
Jul 2,404 2,404-2,681 2,553
Aug 2,553 2,449-2,707 2,578

The Economy Forecast Agency gives information only till the end of August 2027. According to their gold price forecast, the beginning of 2025 will continue the uptrend. The opening price in January will be $2,030. A small decline will happen in September as the price reaches $1,951. Then, the price will grow till the end of the year, and the precious metal quotes may reach a maximum of $2,371. However, buyers will not be able to hold this level for a long time, so analysts predict a correction in the summer of 2026 to a minimum of $1,832. At this level, the correction should stop. Until the end of August 2027, expect growth up to the level of $2,707.

Coin Price Forecast

The average price in 2025 will be $2,269 according to the website’s gold price forecast. The uptrend will continue, and XAUUSD will reach $2,425 by the end of the year. The optimistic gold rate prediction remains until the end of 2030, with a closing price of about $3,784.

Year Mid-Year Year-End
2025 $2,269 $2,425
2026 $2,581 $2,685
2027 $2,803 $3,027
2028 $3,070 $3,098
2029 $3,192 $3,354
2030 $3,570 $3,784

*Please note that long-term price predictions for any investment asset (including gold price forecast) are very approximate and may change due to various factors. Keep reading to find out which factors may affect gold forecast.

How Has the Gold Price Changed Over Time?

Below is a chart that shows how the gold price has changed over the past ten years. In order to make our gold price predictions as accurate as possible, it’s important to look back to such historical data.


One of the biggest drivers of gold price is currency values. Because gold is denominated in dollars, USD can have a significant impact on the price of gold. A weaker dollar makes gold relatively less expensive for foreign buyers and may lift prices. On the other hand, a stronger dollar makes gold relatively more expensive for foreign buyers, thus possibly lowering prices.

The price at the beginning of 2019 was $1,413.75. Though it fell insignificantly in April to $1,353.26, it continued going up till August and became $1,601.35. However, in November, the price lowered to $1,524.80. The reason for this was that Indians started to buy gold less. Actually, it fell to its lowest price in three years. The World Gold Council (WGC) explained that this was due to domestic prices climbing to a record against a backdrop of falling earnings in rural areas.

The price was able to recover and rose up to $2,063.56 in August 2020. The coronavirus pandemic and the unprecedented flow of money supply by government stimulus triggered sharp buying in the bullion metal in both domestic and global markets in 2020. 

The price didn’t manage to maintain this high and fell to $1,840.38 in November 2020. Pfizer was the main reason. The US-based pharmaceutical corporation announced the Covid-19 vaccine news. They made a surprising announcement regarding the status of their coronavirus vaccine trial.

The price managed to recover a little bit, but that didn’t save it from another fall in March 2021 – it fell to $1,742.68 as the dollar strengthened after the jump in US private-sector jobs. “Gold looked as if it was topping out,” Ross Norman, Chief Executive Officer at Metals Daily, said. “Some profit-taking exacerbated the decline, and gold will rebuild from here.” He was right – in May 2021, the price became $1,904.76. Little did he know that the price would again go down, reaching $1,771.60 because of problems with the coronavirus in India.

There were no sharp ups or downs during summer. The first month of Fall 2021 ended with a price decline to $1,726.11 per ounce. The next seven weeks showed a strong recovery – up to $1,866.96. This happened due to the investor rush into safe-haven assets. A stronger dollar and the federal reserve policy led to the following sharp decline. However, the situation changed in December when the bulls took the trend. Such factors as the pandemic, continuing inflationary pressures, and the geopolitical crisis allowed the bulls to reach an all-time gold price high of around $2,070.

Constant liquidity injections into the economy and buybacks of stocks triggered a recovery in the securities market, which attracted some investors. Risk appetite has grown so much that gold’s price has declined to $1,620 in the fall of 2022. Then XAUUSD started to rise after the news about the opening of the Chinese economy and the lifting of most of the Covid restrictions.

The growth of yellow metal is also supported by geopolitical concerns and growing global economic problems. Since 2023, the main growth driver has been changes in the monetary policy of the EM and BRICS central banks, which are actively replenishing their gold and foreign exchange reserves with gold bars. 

Factors That May Affect the Gold Price

Typically, traders associate fundamental analysis with the stock market, not gold. While fundamental analysts monitor certain companies’ financial statements, gold market analysts monitor macroeconomic factors, political and economic world stability, and competition from investment alternatives to forecast prices. Let’s look into five macroeconomic parameters that can influence the cost of the main precious metal.

1. Inflation

Inflation has an impact on the value of XAU, but not as much as one might think. Most novice gold investors believe that if it rises in the US, then gold price should also go up since more inflationary dollars will have to be paid per ounce. However, in the long term, there is no strong correlation between inflation and gold prices. This can be seen from the chart below, which shows its dynamics in the US and gold prices.


This lack of a strong correlation can be explained by two major factors:

a) Gold is not a commodity. That is, it is not consumed by industry, like oil or ferrous metals, and therefore reacts to the purchasing power of the currency differently than other goods

b) During periods of economic and stock market growth, gold has to “compete” for profitability and investor attention. Moreover, during such periods, inflation is usually at a high level.

2. Currency Fluctuations

Gold, along with the US dollar, which is losing its reserve currency function, is a safe haven asset. Therefore, if the exchange rate of one of the currencies (for example, the dollar) depreciates relative to the other reserve currencies, while the purchasing power of buying gold in other currencies is preserved, then the logical consequence is the rise in the gold price relative to the depreciated currency. The chart shows an inverse long-term relationship between the US dollar index (white line) and the dynamics of gold prices (yellow line).


3. The Risk of a Recession Due to Geopolitical Tensions

Any military conflict is the most significant (after financial market crises) source of economic uncertainty for investors. Gold is best used as a safe investment in times when investors are terrified, and regional conflicts may well cause such conditions in the market. They are also associated with several other factors that drive prices up, including excessive spending, money supply, political instability, and currency depreciation.

4. Interest Rates

Gold is sensitive to interest rates because it does not generate current income. Therefore, it is highly sensitive to alternatives in the stock market that offer potential income, such as bonds or even stocks that pay dividends. There is a noticeable, albeit not perfect, negative correlation. When US government bond yields rise, the likelihood is high that gold will trend sideways or even downtrend, while declining yields tend to lead to very positive movements in gold prices. 

For example, to combat the recession in the early 2000s, the federal reserve lowered interest rates to very low levels, forcing long-term investors to withdraw from low-yield bonds and diversify their portfolios with gold. This provided good support to the already rising gold prices. On January 26, 2022, the Fed provided clues on rate hikes, which led to a sharp decline from $1,847.61 to $1,791,03 on January 26-28. 

5. Supply and Demand

Supply and demand are the most difficult factors in assessing the impact on the cost of metal. Large investors in gold, including central banks, the IMF, and leading funds, significantly impact the market. The actions of these participants can substantially change the demand for gold jewelry and investment instruments.

Accounting for the actions of these large players is an impossible task for an ordinary private investor who does not have access to the disclosed information of all the players’ economic data.

For a general understanding of the market balance, you need to know that most of the demand for gold is more or less evenly distributed between investment instruments and jewelry.

As an example, it is shown below that China and India (with strong economic growth) have become major buyers of gold over the past two decades to invest and create reserves and, therefore, have provided an additional stimulus for price increases.

China, Central Bank gold reserves, t.:

Source: Gold. org 

India, Central Bank gold reserves, t.:


Conclusion: Is Gold a Good Investment?

Not only is gold known for being a portfolio diversifier, but with inflationary fears on the rise, investors tend to turn to gold because it is considered a good hedge against rising prices.

“During periods of systemic risk, both gold and the dollar tend to be used as safe haven assets and may move in a similar direction,” says Juan Carlos Artigas, Head of Research, World Gold Council.

Our gold long forecast for 2022-2030 is positive.

Year Mid-Year Year-End
2023 $1,928 $2,030
2024 $2,036 $2,098
2025 $2,269 $2,425
2026 $2,581 $2,685
2027 $2,803 $3,027
2028 $3,070 $3,098
2029 $3,192 $3,354
2030 $3,570 $3,784

Source: Coin Price Forecast

As new initiatives of the world’s central banks and governments to support markets and economies were successfully implemented in 2021, the gold price may have shown a decline. However, new waves of coronavirus, skyrocketing inflation, political tensions, and conflict destabilize the situation, so we have a reason to expect an expert gold price forecast to come true – the price will continue to rise up to $2,100 in 2024 – 2025.

Make sure to create a free demo account on LiteFinance! On LiteFinance, you will be up to date on interesting updates about Gold as an investment asset, and the user-friendly interface will come in handy if you decide to start trading Gold or any other asset. 

Price chart of XAUUSD in real time mode

The content of this article reflects the author’s opinion and does not necessarily reflect the official position of LiteFinance. The material published on this page is provided for informational purposes only and should not be considered as the provision of investment advice for the purposes of Directive 2004/39/EC.

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